They believed in a Calvinist-based religion that espoused a separation of church and state, but that also privileged the spiritual authority of the individual to such a degree as to leave no clear signposts about how the disparate individuals practicing these faiths should form communities.
Now the essential characteristic of Puritanism is the vivid consciousness of an immediate personal relation between the individual and his Maker, which recognises no mediator between God and man except the Son of God, who is both God and man.
They rejected confirmation as unnecessary. It can accept creeds infinitely various. Some Puritans favored a presbyterian form of church organization; others, more radical, began to claim autonomy for individual congregations.
At the Hampton Court Conferencehowever, he rejected most of their proposals, which included abolition of bishops. In addition, these Puritans called for a renewal of preaching, pastoral care and Christian discipline within the Church of England.
No Church, no hierarchy of saints, can be interposed between the soul and God. W9 Many of these Puritans—as they came to be known during a controversy over vestments in the s—sought parliamentary support for an effort to institute a presbyterian form of polity for the Church of England.
English Puritanism Associated exclusively with no single theology or definition of the church — although many were Calvinists — the English Puritans were known at first for their extremely critical attitude regarding the religious compromises made during the reign of Elizabeth I.
From Colony to Province ; repr. A number of radical Puritan groups appeared, including the Levelersthe Diggersthe Fifth Monarchy Menand the Quakers the only one of lasting significance. One such faction was a group of separatist believers in the Yorkshire village of Scrooby, who, fearing for their safety, moved to Holland in and thence, into the place they called Plymouth in New England.
Worship was the area in which Puritans tried to change things most; their efforts in that direction were sustained by intense theological convictions and definite expectations about how seriously Christianity should be taken as the focus of human existence.
Subsistence farmers were called upon to enter the world of production for profit. This conviction rested on the belief that there was one true religion and that it was the duty of the civil authorities to impose it, forcibly if necessary, in the interest of saving the souls of all citizens.
Of that Word there is no infallible interpreter; the only interpreter is the individual himself, guided by the Spirit of God. Calvinist theology and polity proved to be major influences in the formation of Puritan teachings.
True, men and women had no free will, but they had the assurance that their existence—indeed, their every action—was MEANINGFUL and that their strivings and sufferings in the present would ultimately produce a future of perfect peace and security—a kind of heaven on earth.
Religious tension and persecution under the repressive regime of Archbishop Laud caused Puritans to leave England in search of new lands and communities. Ten years later, under the auspices of the Massachusetts Bay Company, the first major Puritan migration to New England took place.
In the story "Endicott and the Red Cross," the defiance of the English crown during the reign of the Stuarts is seen as the seed which, nearly years later, grew into the War of Independence. Again, Puritanism is not essentially connected with any particular form of ecclesiastical organisation.
Company of Stationers, 9th edition, Puritan husbands commanded authority through family direction and prayer. Gravestone of Phebe Gorham, d. Its power to comfort and reassure troubled souls arose from its wider message that, beyond preordaining the eternal fates of men and women, God had a plan for all of human history—that every event in the lives of individuals and nations somehow tended toward an ultimate triumph of good over evil, order over disorder, Christ over Satan.
That confidence made people like the Puritans anything but passive or despairing.
And nothing was more important to early modern men and women than gaining greater reassurance of salvation. The New England Puritans fashioned the civil commonwealth according to the framework of the church.
This was followed by humiliationwhen the sinner realized that he or she was helpless to break free from sin and that their good works could never earn forgiveness.
Puritan congregations in New England allowed laymen as well as women new forms of spiritual self-discovery as they orally translated the evidence of grace recorded upon their souls into communal knowledge and a corporate identity that fashioned itself as a spiritual beacon to the world.
While Puritans praised the obedience of young children, they also believed that, by separating children from their mothers at adolescence, children could better sustain a superior relationship with God.
This was the religious question. In the other direction, the popular mind. Many of them were graduates of Cambridge University, and they became Anglican priests to make changes in their local churches.
Older servants also dwelt with masters and were cared for in the event of illness or injury. By the beginning of the eighteenth century, Puritanism had both declined and shown its tenacity. African-American and Indian servants were likely excluded from such benefits.
And an Old Testament Puritanism contained a grave element of political danger to monarchy; since neither the institution of monarchy among the Hebrews nor its persistence, nor the attitude of the Prophets to the Kings, suggest a high conception of royalty. And here, as in the question of taxation, we have to realise that the quarrel arose because the Crown strained, in defiance of popular sentiment, powers which the Tudors had exercised almost without question, because both Henry VIII and Elizabeth had been careful not to go beyond the limits of popular acquiescence.The literature on Puritans, particularly biographical literature on individual Puritan ministers, was already voluminous in the 17th century and, indeed, the interests of Puritans in the narratives of early life and conversions made the recording of the internal lives important to them.
The Puritans were a group of people loosely defined through their shared adherence to the reformed theological tradition, largely following the work of John Calvin.
Beginning in the 16th century, the Puritan movement took root in specific regional locales throughout Germany, Scotland, the Low Countries, and England.
Following Queen Elizabeth’s. InEngland created the Dominion of New England, a new government consolidation that relocated part of Parliament to America to represent colonists more effectively. Puritanism, a religious reform movement in the late 16th and 17th centuries that sought to “purify” the Church of England of remnants of the Roman Catholic “popery” that the Puritans claimed had been retained after the religious settlement reached early in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I.
The Puritans were a varied group of religious reformers who emerged within the Church of England during the middle of the sixteenth century.
They shared a common Calvinist theology and common criticisms of the Anglican Church and English society and government. Their numbers and influence grew. American Puritanism. Early in the 17th century some Puritan groups separated from the Church of England.
Among these were the Pilgrims, who in founded Plymouth Colony. Ten years later, under the auspices of the Massachusetts Bay Company, the first major Puritan migration to New England took place.Download