All these were aggravated by the growing immigrant population that arrived during different periods in the 18th and 19th centuries. Ina report by the Society for the Prevention of Pauperism blamed these problems on drunkenness and work immorality, the belief that not working was in itself immoral.
It provided finances, land, counsel and advice, education, community action, and children and family services. Yates see Yates, and again in by John Tuckerman, who began a ministry to the poor in that era.
The need for reform was highlighted by a group of journalists and writers known as the muckrakers, who made Americans aware of the serious failings in society and built public support for change.
Their tasks were to assess need, collect and distribute funds from a combination of taxes, private donations, church collectionsand decide the fates of needy or deviant townspeople Day,pp.
Oregon and upheld a state law that limited women laundry workers to working no more than ten hours a day. Native Americans did not have citizenship, and following their banishment to reservations, received no government aid except meager allotments often stolen by Indian agents appointed by the federal government.
Not until did the first state hospital open Willard. In DecemberCongress adopted the Eighteenth Amendment, which was approved by the states in January and went into effect a year later, banning the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol nationwide. For adults, colonial workhouses were the original prisons.
When Bellevue opened init developed a medical social work unit to help patients and outpatients, including the mentally ill. The Progressive Era There were several trends that were evident during the last half of the 19th century that influenced early 20th social welfare and social work.
Under this plan, the structure of a city government followed that of a business corporation, with a city administrator acting as a manager reporting to a board of directors made up of a mayor and city council.
Progressive reform measures, however, extended beyond restructuring the government and addressed social problems as well. One of the most effective weapons in its campaign were photographs taken by Lewis Hine that showed boys and girls as young as eight years of age working with dangerous equipment in coal mines and factories.
During the Civil War, women developed essential services for the Union. By the s, most public funding had been withdrawn from private agencies except those for the aged, and the government assumed responsibility for income maintenance, care for the aged, disabilities and deaths related to employment, public health, and corrections.
Charity Organization Societies COSsfirst organized in Buffalo indeveloped centralized community cooperative agencies and central client registries, and trained friendly visitors caseworkers.
At each stop, some were chosen by local people to work on farms, often to death, though some found happy homes. Their first penitentiary opened inand their innovations appeared in later institutions such as Sing Sing New York, and San Quentin California, The Poor Laws categorized public dependents as worthy or impotent poor aged or mentally or physically impaired and perhaps deserving of aid; unworthy poor sturdy beggars—able-bodied adults in poverty ; and dependent children—poor, unwanted, abandoned, or orphaned.
Toward mid-century, the Enlightenment and evangelical religious movements — aroused interest in the causes and remedies of social problems, especially poverty.
With his own money he provided rehabilitation for them, and became a model for social workers in the field of probation. Each report generally condemned outdoor relief and made several recommendations: War veterans were exceptions: Another solution was the Reformatory movement, led by the Society for Reformation for Juvenile Delinquents, which in opened the House of Refuge, a combined prison, factory, and school.
Progressives hoped to accomplish these goals through a variety of political reforms. Meanwhile, making the national government more responsive to the people was expressed through the Seventeenth Amendment which provided for the direct election of senators rather than their selection by the state legislatures.
Racial and Ethnic Minorities Ethnic groups, including those of African descent, Finns, Poles, and Chinese, began mutual aid and insurance societies Seller,p. InBoston Associated Charities began to pay workers to learn COS techniques developed under the leadership of Mary Richmond, who conducted a series of conferences defining the meaning and practice of casework and the importance of person-in-situation counseling.
On the basis of a model from Toynbee Hall in London, England, their goals were to provide safe houses where women, particularly immigrants, could become educated for citizenship and become employable. On March 25,almost people, mostly Italian and Jewish immigrant women, died in the Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire.
Making government more responsive and efficient. Other Social Welfare Policy Areas Physical and public health problems, mental illness, crime and delinquency, and the need for public education were areas that states and localities began to tackle along with private charity.
With German Americans prominent in the brewing and distillery industries, American participation in the First World War added allegedly patriotic motives to the calls for a constitutional amendment on prohibition.
At the same time, the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy opened to train caseworkers and administrators of social agencies, becoming the Institution of Social Sciences in — and later the Chicago School of Social Service Administration.
For poorer women, the Civil War meant new opportunities for better-paid employment previously reserved for men, as nurses, teachers, secretaries, and workers in the expanding field of social services. This strategy worked, and by almost two thirds of the states had banned the manufacture and sale of alcohol.
Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, family and local responsibilities, categorization of poor, and institutional placement provided the solution to social problems. Dorothea Dix in convinced the Massachusetts legislature of its moral obligation to the mentally ill. The Supreme Court agreed in Muller v.
As early asMassachusetts legislated public schools, and free schools proliferated in the s. The first colony-wide mental hospital opened in Virginia inand inDr.The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States, from the s to s.
The main objective of the Progressive movement was eliminating corruption in government.
The movement primarily targeted political machines and their bosses. Social Welfare: The Progressive Era There were several trends that were evident during the last half of the 19th century that influenced early 20th social welfare and social. The progressive movement in the United States, which took place from the s to the s, sought to protect social welfare, promote fairness, control big business, uphold moral values and promote greater efficiency of government and business.
Bynew national, state and local laws. Social Welfare During The Progressive Era. II: Women during the Progressive Era Kenedra Coney HIS Professor Owens May 29, Unit II: Women in the Progressive Era During the decades between s and s there was a new age of reform there was so much reform activity that historians called this era the Progressive.
childrens bureau- Julia Lathrop (social worker- hull house resident) appointed to head the bureau—responsible for looking at the state of children in the US.- investigating and reporting on child welfare and child life RESEARCH AGENCY.
The basic shape of the state-federal public welfare system formed by the Social Security Act of remained largely intact until when Congress combined the cash assistance programs serving needy adults (Aid for the Aged, Blind, and Disabled) into the Supplementary Income (SSI) program, making it a federally administered program .Download